Importance of security-by-design for IT and OT systems in building a security resilient framework


By Pritam Shah, Global Practice Head – OT Security and Data Security

Traditionally, Information Technology (IT) systems—including computer storage and networking devices—and Operational Technology (OT) systems—encompassing manufacturing and industrial environments—existed in silos, each with distinct suppliers and business models. However, now as manufacturers increasingly rely on data from their shop floors to enhance productivity and quality, the need for IT and OT integration has grown. In today’s interconnected world, the convergence of IT and OT is inevitable and presents numerous advantages, such as streamlined operations, enhanced efficiency, cost reduction, and data-driven decision-making. Nonetheless, this integration also introduces security vulnerabilities that can lead to serious consequences. Traditional OT devices, which prioritize reliability, availability, and uptime, were not designed with security in mind. As a result, they are easy targets for cyber threats, such as malware and phishing attacks.


Securing legacy OT systems is particularly challenging due to their inherent vulnerabilities and the absence of standardization across different OT systems. This lack of uniformity makes it difficult to develop a one-size-fits-all security solution. Additionally, integrating legacy OT systems with next-generation security measures often leads to compatibility issues. On the other hand, IT systems have evolved and continue to do so at a rapid pace, further complicating the integration process. This integration intensifies and expands the attack surface, making it imperative for the adoption of a comprehensive security approach, such as security-by-design.

Key steps to be followed in this approach are captured here.

Perform risk assessment

The initial step in security-by-design is to perform thorough risk assessments. This involves identifying potential threats, vulnerabilities, and attack vectors specific to IT and OT environments. Assessing enables understanding the environment’s security posture, and prioritizing remediation efforts as well.  By understanding the risk landscape, organizations can prioritize security measures and allocate resources effectively. 

Build security features into products and solutions

To ensure robust security, develop a secure architecture from the very outset. This involves designing network segmentation to isolate critical assets from non-critical systems, thereby limiting the attack surface. Implement strict access controls and privileges to restrict sensitive data and systems access. Ensure data integrity through encryption and authentication processes, making systems inherently more secure.

Integrate security controls

Integrating comprehensive security controls is essential. This includes firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and endpoint protection tools for IT systems. For OT systems, it’s crucial to implement real-time monitoring, fail-safe mechanisms, and resilience against physical attacks. Incorporating these controls from the beginning minimizes the need for reactive measures later.

Conduct ongoing testing and validation

Regular security testing, vulnerability assessments, penetration testing, and compliance audits are vital for identifying vulnerabilities and potential attack vectors. This proactive approach allows organizations to rectify weaknesses, enhance security posture, and protect their systems effectively.  For OT systems, specialized testing methods that support the unique requirements of industrial environments are necessary. Regular testing ensures that security measures remain effective amidst evolving threats enabling organizations to implement proactive measures to safeguard their systems.

Implement secure development best practices

Developers should adopt secure coding practices, including coding standards, input validation, secure data storage, secure communication protocols, code reviews, and automated security testing. These measures help identify and mitigate security issues during the development phase, eliminating common vulnerabilities. Additionally, training developers in secure coding techniques and fostering a security-centric culture within development teams are equally crucial.

Regular updates, patches, and incident response

Regular software updates and effective patch management are essential to address newly identified security vulnerabilities. Staying current with security patches and updates for all software components is crucial. Organizations should also establish a robust, well-defined incident response plan to effectively manage security incidents, minimizing damage and recovery time. Given the significant impact of downtime on OT systems, a strong incident response strategy is particularly vital to ensure resilience and quick recovery.

Key Benefits of Security-by-Design

Effective risk management

Addressing security from the outset significantly reduces the risk of security breaches. This proactive approach helps identify and mitigate risks early in the software development lifecycle, enhancing the safety of OT systems in manufacturing units. By doing so, the likelihood of vulnerabilities that could be exploited by threat actors is greatly diminished.

Regulatory compliance and governance

In today’s environment, numerous industry verticals face stringent regulations regarding cybersecurity and safety. Security-by-design allows organizations to seamlessly comply with these regulations. By continuously adapting to evolving governance standards, organizations ensure that all necessary security controls and processes are established from the outset. This approach not only reduces the burden on manufacturing personnel but also minimizes penalties and downtime associated with non-compliance.

Cost efficiency

Implementing security measures early in the design and development stages is more cost-effective than addressing security breaches after deployment. Reactive security measures often result in increased system downtime, regulatory fines, and additional work, all of which can lead to higher costs. Therefore, proactive security implementation not only enhances security posture but also mitigates potential financial impacts associated with breaches and regulatory non-compliance.

Enhanced operational resilience

IT and OT systems designed with security in mind are fortified and more resilient to cyber-attacks and operational failures. Adopting the security-by-design approach significantly enhances the overall resilience of manufacturing operations, enabling plants to withstand and recover swiftly from cyber incidents. This approach ensures minimal disruption and maintains continuity in production, safeguarding against potential financial and reputational losses. 

In today’s interconnected landscape, security-by-design is not merely a technical necessity but a strategic business imperative. This approach is crucial for safeguarding critical infrastructure and data, forming the foundation of resilient manufacturing operations.


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